NC1025: Mycotoxins:Biosecurity and Food Safety (NC129)
- September 01, 2005 to September 30, 2010
- Administrative Advisor(s):
- NIFA Reps:
Statement of Issue(s) and Justification:
Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi that can adversely affect animal and human health. Mycotoxins can be produced in grain during storage or processing, but are most frequently associated with fungal infection that occur before harvest. Environmental factors that determine fungal infection and mycotoxin production are complex. Generally, a basal level of mycotoxins is present in US grain; however, in some years, environmental conditions lead to localized or widespread outbreaks of mycotoxin contamination. However, there is no organized monitoring system for tracking the incidence and severity of mycotoxin contamination at either the national or regional levels. Although breeding and transgenic technologies have shown promise for reducing the risk of mycotoxin contamination of grain, to date no commercial variety of any major US crop is available with either genetic or transgenic resistance to mycotoxin contamination.
The need, as indicated by stakeholders, and likely impacts from completion of the work. For grain and livestock producers, the most important issues are preventing mycotoxin contamination and reducing the effects of mycotoxins on livestock. For grain buyers and food processors, the primary issue is being able to rapidly assess the quality of grain as pertaining to mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi. The worst-case scenario for these stakeholders is to own millions of bushels of corn contaminated with unacceptable levels of aflatoxins and fumonisins, or wheat with excessive concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON). Rapid methods to detect mycotoxins at the first points of sale (elevators) as well as methods to detect mycotoxigenic fungi in the commodity (e.g. DON-producing Fusarium in barley) would address these concerns. Additionally, these stakeholders need cost-effective methods to detoxify mycotoxins and prevent further deterioration of contaminated grain. The lowering of tolerance limits for mycotoxins in overseas markets has increased the burden for grain buyers and food processors; currently, levels of mycotoxins that are acceptable for some US products are unacceptable in European and Asian markets resulting in non tarrif trade barriers. New methods to monitor and treat contaminated grain would benefit domestic consumers and would allow American commodities to compete more effectively in foreign markets. Finally, workers who are responsible for animal and human health need information about the toxicity, carcinogenicity, modes of action, and biomarkers of exposure and disease for all categories of mycotoxins. This information would be used to train health-care providers to identify exposure and treat related disease, as well as to develop accurate risk assessment recommendations.
The objectives outlined in this proposal will address the needs of the stakeholders. Objective 1 deals with the need for information applicable to the risk assessment process. The research team working on this objective will look specifically at the toxic effects of fumonisin and fumonisin conjugates. Animal models, target species and cell cultures will be used to determine the effects of the mycotoxin on the whole organism, target organs, cellular and subcelluar changes, and gene expression. Objective 2 addresses the stakeholders' continuing need for new detection methods. A team of researchers will 1) evaluate new antibodies to detect the presence of fumonisin, DON and other mycotoxin analogs present after processing, 2) develop a library of PCR primers for detecting mycotoxigenic fungi, and 3) develop and evaluate optical detection technology that detects fungal-contaminated commodities. In addition, this NC group of experts will serve as an unique resource to address mycotoxin issues as they relate to potential bioterrorism or outbreaks of plant, animal or human disease. No other such group exists in the US.
These studies will provide new information on mycotoxin detection, detection of fungi that produce mycotoxins, and the non-destructive detection of contaminated grain. Objective 3 will address the need for management procedures that help prevent mycotoxin-related problems during grain handling, storing, processing and feeding. Finally, the goal of the team working on Objective 4 is to provide basic knowledge about the biochemical and molecular factors that regulate the biosynthesis of aflatoxins and fumonisins. This will reveal critical points in the regulation where targeted inhibitors could be designed.
The importance of the work, and consequences if it is not done. Hazard assessment includes exposure assessment and evaluation of toxicity, both are essential. The proposed research is wide-ranging and could lead to negative consequences if not completed. First of all, the presence of mycotoxins is an important health hazard. We propose basic research to define the toxicity of several important mycotoxins. Without this information, it is impossible to assess risks associated with mycotoxins. Additionally, the presence of mycotoxins in grain is an economic concern, especially in the context of global markets. Without an aggressive research program to prevent, treat and contain outbreaks of mycotoxins in grain, US grain producers will suffer the consequences of reduced marketability of their products. Furthermore, the proposed research addresses biosecurity concerns. The natural occurrence of mycotoxins in grain is an important security concern for the grain industry and end-users of grain; mycotoxins have been used as agents of terrorism, e.g. aflatoxin in Iraq. . Without a proactive research program to find innovative ways to monitor and treat mycotoxins, US agriculture faces the consequence of being unprepared for a mycotoxin outbreak, regardless of its origin. Finally, the production of mycotoxins represents a basic aspect of agricultural science. Improving our understanding of how mycotoxin biosynthesis is regulated will not only lead to novel treatment strategies, but may also advance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis in general.
The advantages for doing the work as a multistate effort and the technical feasibility of the research. The scientists involved in this multistate, multidisciplinary research proposal work individually on mycotoxin issues related to their respective disciplines and areas of expertise. Just as agriculture is diverse and varies greatly from state to state (and in many instances, within a given state), the occurrence and severity of mycotoxin outbreaks vary widely across the US. A multistate effort ensures a thorough approach to investigate a complex and highly variable phenomenon. Due to the wide range of experience and expertise of the group, the proposed research should be technically feasible.
Related, Current, and Previous Work:
NC129 is currently the only active research group that addresses the broad topic of mycotoxins. Over the past five years, the NC129 committee has seen a dramatic change in its core membership. We have made significant progress on our research objectives and new members have sparked new collaborative efforts. Our most significant impact over this period was on the FDA document entitled Guidance for Industry: Fumonisin Levels in Human Foods and Animal Feeds, which is a guide for industry on the fumonisin levels that FDA consider adequate to protect human and animal health. Data used to put the document together came from NC129 research.The committee members and their colleagues published 202 research articles between 2000 and 2004. Many of these publications resulted from NC129 collaborative research. Our Internet page has provided information and been a contact point for numerous people over the past five years. The core members for the new proposal continue to provide a multi-disciplinary team. Current core members of the committee include: fungal biologists and plant pathologists at MI (Trail), WI (Keller), PA (Kuldau), IN (Woloshuk), ND Wolf-Hall), TX (Shim), NE (Dickman), and ARS (Kendra) who work together to understand mycotoxin biosynthesis as well as to develop molecular tools for detecting the various mycotoxigenic fungi; veterinary pathologists and toxicologists from KS (Smith), IL (Haschek-Hock), IA (Murphy), MN (Dong), and MO (Rottinghaus) who work toward understanding toxic effects on mycotoxins; and analytical chemists from ARS, MN, and MO who develop and validate new methodologies to detect and analyze mycotoxins. Based on the accomplishments and impacts reported in the annual reports over the last 4 years, this is a productive and collaborative group of experts that can address all issues related to mycotoxins.
The Southern Region group IEG 51 (Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Grains) has met with the NC-129 group on occasion, although they have not been active in the past few years. The NC 213 group, which addresses grain quality and covers Marketing and Delivery of Quality Cereals and Oilseeds, has one mycotoxin member who soon will retire. NCR 184 (Management of Head Scab of Small Grains) is concerned with DON contamination and pre-harvest disease control issues. These groups are all diverse and communications among groups is common and effective. These research groups are the primary regional and interregional research efforts on mycotoxins in the Experiment Station system. The various USDA/ARS research efforts are included in regional efforts because the USDA/ARS has ongoing research projects on Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins. Many times the projects are cooperative efforts among the Experiment Stations and the USDA/ARS. The CRIS database lists a total of 41 projects when searched with the keyword mycotoxin and 2004. There are few projects that are not already in one of the mycotoxin-related Regional Projects or Information Exchange Groups. Projects not covered in any of these groups are plant breeding programs for control of diseases caused by fusaria or aspergilli that can produce mycotoxin contamination of the harvested product. The plant breeders cooperate with regional project members in almost all cases so there are effective communication and information mechanisms. There is little duplication of research in the projects in the CRIS database and the researchers from the various states have developed productive multistate research projects in many areas of mycotoxin research. The strengths of mycotoxin multistate research efforts are easy to document. Since the mycotoxin problems impacting food safety are often related to weather patterns it is critical that multistate studies and surveys be current and complementary.
- Develop data for use in risk assessment of mycotoxins in human and animal health.
- Develop new techniques and improve current assays to identify and measure mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in cereal grains.
- Establish integrated strategies to manage and to prevent mycotoxin contamination in cereal grains.
- Define the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis and the molecular relationships between mycotoxigenic fungi.
Objective 1. Develop data for use in risk assessment of mycotoxins in human and animal health.
Stations participating in objective 1 (IA, IL, ARS, MO, KS) will continue to generate data to address the knowledge gaps for the mechanistic basis for mycotoxin induced disease. This will be done through evaluating structure activity relationships (SAR) and investigating cell, tissue and whole animal responses at the biochemical, physiological and structural levels. Epidemiology data will be considered where available. Missouri will continue to provide all groups with Fusarium verticillioides culture material. MI, MN, ND, IN and PA will provide trichothecene-contaminated grain samples for all stations.
Dose Response Studies and Evaluation of Potential Biomarkers
Dose response assessments will be used by IA and IL to determine and model mycotoxin toxicity such as acute toxicity, carcinogenesis, and immunomodulation. Susceptibility, such as species differences and sensitive target populations, will be considered in the dose response assessments. Exposure assessments for mycotoxins must take into account route of exposure, level and duration of exposure to the mycotoxin. Although a number of studies have attempted to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of fumonisins for swine and horses, the dose response curves are still in their preliminary stages due to different routes of toxin administration, lenth of exposure, and source of toxin (e.g..culture material, purified toxin, naturally contaminated feed). Dose response data for detoxified or partially detoxified mycotoxins is sparse if available at all. Dose response data for DON in mice will be obtained by IA. Dose response curves for fumonisin and its detoxification products will be examined in swine and potentially in rabbits and horses by i.p. and oral dosing (using MO culture material) followed by assessment of clinical sign, serum and urine biochemistry, morphology, and specific sphingolipid biomarkers in serum, urine and tissues. IL will begin to evaluate sphingosine/sphinganine-1-phosphate as a serum biomarker of exposure.
Structure Activity Relationships
Systematic evaluation of structure activity relationships (SAR) has not been conducted in the mycotoxin area. Fumonisin analogues have been evaluated for their cytoxicity, plant toxicity and sphingolipid alterations in only a few studies. Current activity with trichothecenes has focused on immune responses and cell signaling pathways. A Medline search revealed 10 papers in past 10 years on mycotoxin SAR.
IA will use the K562 human erythroleukemia cell line as a model to evaluate SAR of DON, its major metabolites and other trichothecenes. Growth of this cell line is inhibited by DON, in a manner similar to inhibition of mouse splenocyte proliferation in vivo, according to preliminary data from Iowa. This model may be used as a biologically relevant screening assay for DON-contaminated grain and food samples; 24 h incubation of K562 cells with grain extracts containing known amounts of DON cause cell proliferation inhibition identical to the same amount of pure DON.
The fumonisins have received the most attention by NC129 in the past. Rodents will be used as a model for carcinogenicity, teratogencity and immunotoxicity for the fumonisins and DON. Since several trichothecenes have been identified by CDC as biosecurity risks, it is critical to be able to use animal assays in conjunction with cell systems to evaluate potential natural or intentional contamination of feeds and foods by these agents.
Animal assays will be critical to IA in assessing if decontamination and detoxification strategies designed in objective 3 are successful. We will continue to assess acute toxicity of fumonisins and the DON in mouse and other animal models in oral feeding studies with naturally contaminated foods or purified toxin. Using the mouse splenocyte suspension, enumeration of antibody response to T-dependent antigen will be assessed with hemolytic plaque assay in response to sheep RBCs. Serum corticosterone levels of all mice were measured using commercial enzyme immunoassay with an effect of exercise.
IL will continue mechanistic studies with fumonisin to characterize the consequences of sphingolipid alteration in cells and tissues. Specifically the role of sphinganine/sphingosine-1-phosphate in toxicity will be evaluated in in vivo and in vitro studies. These studies will focus on the cardiovascular system and cholesterol metabolism. The pig will remain the primary animal model because of its similarity to humans, however horses and cattle will also be studied. The effects of fumonisin on homocysteine and folate levels will be determined.
Nutritional status has an effect on mycotoxin toxicity and must be considered when designing toxicity evaluations. Nutritional status of target populations must be considered. For example, adequately nourished individuals typically are more susceptible to the carcinogenicity of fumonisin than those on nutritionally deficient diets whereas nutrient deficient (e.g) individuals may be more susceptible to specific effects, e.g. folate deficiency may predispose to neural tube disorders. NE will continue its studies into the role of fumonisin induced folate deficiency in neural tube disorders.
Objective 2.Develop new techniques and improve current assays for identification and quantification of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in cereal grains.
Stations participating in objective 2 (IA, IN, ARS, PA MI, MN, MO, KS, ND, NE) will collaborate on a variety of strategies to monitor mycotoxins and the fungi that produce them.
Rapid Assay Techniques
The NC-129 members have a history of developing improved immunochemical techniques for the monitoring of mycotoxins in commodities, especially the development of antibodies and enzyme-linked immosorbent assays (ELISAs). Several of the important mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol and fumonisins are known to react with food constituents during processing or preparation. MO, ARS, IA and KS will identify, isolate, and purify milligram amounts of mycotoxins, and develop antibodies for rapid-detection assays. We also will use the rapid assays to determine the prevalence of mycotoxin reaction products in commodities and foods.
PA, ARS will also explore the use of optical detection techniques to detect fungal contamination. This could improve the sorting of commodities thereby facilitating the removal of mycotoxins from grains. We will develop a library of spectra of different fungal cultures for differentiating different pathogenic organisms.
Genetic Detection Techniques
Genetic detection techniques detect the presence of DNA of mycotoxigenic species of fungi in commodities. Such information is potentially important for monitoring the population genetics behind fungal epidemics in crops. Our goal will be to develop a library of PCR primer for both conventional and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the methodology to use the primers in multiplex formats. We will focus on the fungi that produce trichothecenes, fumonisins, aflatoxins, zearalenones, ochratoxins, roquefortines and patulins. Participating members (PA, IN, WI, ARS, NE and MI) will each focus on developing the primer sets for one of the mycotoxin producers. Multiplex protocols will be developed and tested as a group effort.
Instrumental techniques are essential for confirming the presence of mycotoxins in cereal grains, and for more accurate quantification of the amounts of mycotoxins present. MI, PA, ARS will continue a collaborative effort to validate new methodologies, such as chromatographic techniques, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.
Objective 3. Establish integrated strategies to manage and to prevent mycotoxin contamination in cereal grains.
Stations participating in objective 3 (IA, IL, IN, ARS, MI, MN, MO, KS, ND, NE) will collaborate on a variety of strategies to manage mycotoxin contamination.
Grains with higher levels of contamination and most screenings from grain operations are unsafe for human and/or animal consumption and must be destroyed or alternate uses identified. If effective adsorbent clays can be identified that successfully prevent mycotoxicosis, these contaminated grains and screenings can be safely and economically utilized in the livestock and poultry industry. The major advantages of adsorbents include low cost, safety, and ease of addition to animal feeds. However, not all adsorbents are equally effective in protecting livestock against the toxic effects of mycotoxins. In addition, several adsorbents have been shown to impair nutrient utilization. Many of the adsorbents on the market today have not been tested for in vivo efficacy, but are marketed solely on in vitro data. However, in vitro tests may not always be a reliable indicator of an adsorbents ability to bind a mycotoxin. Therefore, it is important that adsorbents be subjected to in vivo evaluation both with respect to efficacy and to determine if impaired nutrient utilization from diets occurs. The University of Missouri will continue to evaluate the efficiency of adsorbents and other GRAS approved products to ameliorate the toxic effects of Fusarium mycotoxins in poultry and livestock.
MI, NE, IL, IA and ND will collaborate on grain processing as a means of detoxification. IA will investigate characterization of the chemical reactions of mycotoxins with other food constituents, especially reducing sugars with special emphasis on processes for human foods. IA, MO and WI will study the effects of nutrients on mycotoxin toxicity. ND will evaluate physical, chemical and biological approaches for dealing with preharvest formed Fusarium mycotoxins and viable mycotoxigenic Fusarium spp. ND will evaluate electron-beam radiation and hot water for prevention of Fusarium growth and mycotoxin production during the malting of barley and they will also evaluate other radiant sources of energy for physical treatments, chemical treatments such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone, and biological methods such as addition of antifungal bacterial starter cultures.
Surveys are necessary to determine theincidence, frequency and scope of toxigenic fungi and their toxins in cereal grains. Surveys are also essential to determine potential exposure of humans and animals to individual mycotoxins (part of risk assessment). This is an unique opportunity for individual states to conduct surveys on a regular basis, so that reliable mycotoxin data can be acquired quickly for use by scientists, economists and others who utilize cereal grains. Technical Committee members reside and conduct research and surveys in various areas and in various crops. KS, IN, and MI have initiated annual surveys for toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in cereal grains. NC129 members from MN and MI, ND, and WI also have collaborations with members of NCR 184 to facilitate surveys for DON associated with Fusarium Head Blight of wheat and barley. The goals of this collaboration will be to 1) evaluate fungicide chemistry, application timing, and application techniques on reducing Fusarium head blight severity and levels of DON in infected wheat; 2) collaborate with wheat breeders and plant pathologists in the region to evaluate wheat germplasm under different environments to identify sources of resistance to Fusarium graminearium; 3) study the potential of anti-DON specific recombinant antibody, and a peptide mimic of DON, as resistance factors in transgenic wheat.
Fusarium disease epidemiology will be studied, with the cooperation of plant breeders, to compare varieties for susceptibility at different locations in the US and to develop models for predicting outbreaks of infection and toxicogenesis. For this proposal, NCAUR will coordinate the effort to determine the role of fumonisins in pathogenicity, and to determine if strains disrupted in fumonisin biosynthesis are good candidates for biological control agents. Indiana will assist the NCAUR group by providing additional mutant strains of F. moniliforme. NCAUR will determine if the mating locus of G. zeae, which allows the fungus to produce sexual spores, plays a critical role in head scab epidemics. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate sensitivity to fumonisin could be useful information for use in molecular plant breeding.
Michigan, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Ohio will collaborate on uniform fungicide trial nurseries for FHB on wheat and barley, and on the development of regional variety nursery trials to identify and validate sources of resistance. New approaches to resistance will involve the development of transgenic plants using a variety of gene sources, including recombinant antibody, and peptide mimics of deoxynivalenol. Iowa will continue work with Bt transgenic corn that has consistantly shown lower fungal infection and toxin production. Illinois will identify genes that play important roles in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and virulence in F. verticillioides and identify physiological changes that occur in corn in response to infection by the fungus. The functions of the genes will be determined by gene disruption analysis combined with corn ear rot assays.
Objective 4. Define the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis and the molecular relationships between mycotoxigenic fungi.
Stations participating in objective 4 (IN, TX, ARS, WI) will collaborate to 1) generate disruption mutants for genes expressed during fumonisin biosynthesis and 2) evaluate gene expression profiles in wild type and fck1 mutant of F. verticillioides cultured on various corn kernel tissues.
Through microarray techniques and statistical analysis, IN identified 17 genes that displayed expression patterns similar to the FUM genes. The goal of this project is to mutate these genes by homologous recombination in F. verticillioides and to determine any function in fumonisin biosynthesis.
IN, TX will construct disruption vectors consisting of a hygromycin-resistance cassette flanked by about 500 bp of each EST sequence. Transformants of F. verticillioides will be obtained by a PEG-mediated method, and disrupted genes will be identified by PCR and Southern analyses. We will determine the effects of mutations on conidiation and fumonisin production when grown on kenels as well as defined medium at pH 3 and pH 9. Of those affected in fumonisin biosynthesis, we will monitor expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes by northern analysis and/or qPCR. We will also complement the mutations with the corresponding wild-type genes.
Analysis of two genes (a cyclin (fcc1) and a cyclin-dependent kinase (fck1) indicates that both genes are needed for fumonisin production during colonization of corn kernels. Also, gene expression in the wild-type fungus is greatly affected by the tissue type, genotype and developmental stage of the colonized kernel. To illuminate other genes whose expression might be dependent on or influenced by the Fcc1/Fck1 complex as well as tissue specific gene expression, IN, TX, ARS and WI will utilize the F. verticillioides microarrays to analyze and identify genes differentially expressed when the fck1 mutant and wild type are grown under differing corn kernel environments. Fusarium verticillioides microarrays have been developed at the USDA-NCAUR utilizing an EST library of F. verticillioides genes. The library consists of sequences from over 87,000 clones representing over 11,000 unique genes (www.tigr.org/tdb/tgi/cw/cwgi2/). High-density arrays have been designed by Nimblegen Systems, Inc (Madison, WI) from the EST library information. The arrays contain over 132,000 features specific for F. verticillioides sequences consisting of 12 24-base pair oligonucleotide probes for each EST. We propose to use microarray analysis as a gene discovery tool. Both the fck1 mutant and a wild-type strain will be cultured on dissected corn kernel tissues and total RNA will be extracted at 2-day intervals over 10 days. Total RNA will be isolated by IN from each time point and supplied to Nimblegen Systems, Inc, who will label the RNA and conduct the hybridization to the microarray. Nimblegen will provide the raw scan data from hybridized microarrays to ARS, who will coordinate data analysis. Acuity 4.0 (Molecular Devices) software will be used to analyze the data. Acuity allows Robust Multichip Analysis (RMA) of probe level data, using quantile or cyclic loess normalization between arrays. Technical replicates are represented on each chip by 12 probes to different sequences corresponding to the same EST. Two biological replications will be utilized in this experiment. Acuity also contains a number of clustering methods for visualizing patterns of gene expression (e.g., hierarchical clustering, self-organizing maps, K-means and K-medians, gap statistic, principal components analysis).
Measurement of Progress and Results:
- Refereed journal publications; many will be co-authored by the members from multiple states.
- Validation of new management tools for diagnostics and prevention of mycotoxin contamination.
- Transfer of information that is generated to grain producers and food producers during extension programs.
Outcomes or projected Impacts:
- US and international government policy makers (USFDA, JECFA, IARC) will use our research information in their risk assessments for mycotoxins. The outcome of risk assessment has been government recommendations on maximum mycotoxin levels agriculture products, which affects national and international use of products. We anticipate that our research information will have a major impact on the decision making by providing mode of toxicity data, survey data, and data aimed at understanding how food components affect mycotoxin biosynthesis.
- Our research will advance detection technologies that can be used by private companies which provide mycotoxin analysis services to food industries. This will include development of new techniques and validation of their current methodology
- Our research will generate new protocols for monitoring mycotoxins in agricultural products that will be incorporated by biosecurity agencies.
(2006): We will submit a multidisciplinary research proposal to the USDA NRI Competitive Grants Program: 2.0 Animal and Plant Biosecurity. We will target both the animal and plant sources of funding.
(2007): We will establish at our website a data set of PCR primers and protocols for identifying mycotoxigenic fungi. This will be update yearly as the research progress.
(2006): We expand the content at our website and improve the links.
(2007): We will organize a mycotoxin symposium at the Midwest AOAC annual meeting.
(2009): We will organize a mycotoxin symposium at the Midwest AOAC annual meeting.
Projected Participation:Include a completed Appendix E form
Outreach Plan:The committee will continue to develop and maintain an Internet page. In the past many inquiries from the public (news and industry) have originated from this site. Included at the site is the contact information for members, annual reports, and links to all topics related to mycotoxins. Refereed journal publications will be an important outreach tool. Many of the publication will be on applied research. Also members who have extension activities will transfer information to grain and food producers. The committee will collaborate with the international Fusarium Workshop (held in Kansas odd years and at a prominent world site even years), which provides training on biology, taxonomy, and toxicity of fusarium species. We will coordinate with global efforts in Europe and Africa.
Organization and Governance:
The executive committee will consist of a chair, vice-chair, secretary and past chair.The executive committee will be elected by the technical committee. Each year a new secretary will be elected and the vice-chair will advance to chair, with the chair; becoming past chair. This committee will conduct business as necessary for the whole committee, between meetings of the technical committee.
The technical committee meeting will be called once a year by the Administrative Adviser. At these meetings, work at the participating stations will be reviewed for progress and for areas needing further effort. When advantageous, efforts will be made to provide for exchange of representatives with other technical committees. Publication of results will be in the form of scientific publications, extension reports or technical bulletins, as appropriate. Attendance at the annual meeting and participation with the group will be monitored on a yearly basis. The committee will discuss with the Administrative Advisor possible remedies for delinquent members.Duties of Members of the Executive Committee: Chair - establish location of meeting and coordinate the date with the Administrative Adviser. Notify technical committee members of dates, times and location of meeting and assist members in making accommodations. Call the meetings to order and preside during the meeting. Will become past Chair following Annual Meeting adjournment. Vice-Chair - will function as the Chair in his/her absence. Becomes chair immediately following the Annual Meeting. Is responsible for writing, getting approval and disseminating the Annual Report. Secretary - will take minutes for all meetings of the Executive Meeting and the Annual Meeting at which he/she is elected. Is responsible for disseminating copies of the minutes to all Technical Committee members following approval by the Administrative Adviser. Becomes vice chair for the next Annual Meeting.
Literature Cited:Refer to attachment.
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